ʻO ka boom hope loa i ka hana ʻenehana no kaʻoihana keleawei loko o nā makahiki mua ʻelua o kēia kenekulia, i ka wā i hoʻololi ʻia ai ka ʻeli ʻana i ka lua hāmama, ka neʻe ʻana o ka flotation, a me ka smelter reverberatory i nā ores keleawe porphyry.

Koe nae ka leaching-solvent extrac tion-electrowinning, ua mau ke ano kumu o ke kope no ka hana ana no 65 makahiki.Eia kekahi, ʻeono o nā mines i wehe ʻia ma waena o 1900 a me 1920 i waena o nā mea hana keleawe nui ma United States i kēia lā.

Ma kahi o ka lele nui ʻana i mua, ʻo ka ʻenehana ʻenehana i ka ʻoihana keleawe i nā makahiki he 65 i hala iho nei ua loaʻa ka nui o nā hoʻololi hoʻonui e hiki ai i nā hui ke hoʻohana i nā ores haʻahaʻa a hoʻemi mau i nā kumukūʻai o ka hana.Ua ʻoiaʻiʻo nā ʻoihana waiwai

hoʻohana ʻia i nā ʻāpana āpau o ka hana keleawe.Ua piʻi nui ka ma chin a me ke kanaka.

Hōʻike pōkole kēia mokuna i ka ʻenehana no ka hana ʻana i ke keleawe, mai ka ʻimi ʻana, ma o ka ʻeli ʻana a me ka wili ʻana, i ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana a me ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana a i ʻole ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana a me ka electrowinning.Hoʻomaka ka mokuna me ka ʻike ʻana i ka mōʻaukala o ka cop no ka hoʻomohala ʻenehana.A laila, no kēlā me kēia

ʻO ke kahua o ka hana keleawe, nānā ia i ke kūlana o kēia manawa, ʻike i nā holomua ʻenehana hou, loiloi i nā holomua o ka wā e hiki mai ana a me nā pono noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana, a kūkākūkā i ke koʻikoʻi o nā holomua hou i ka hoʻokūkū o ka ʻoihana US.Helu 6-1

hōʻike i nā pepa kahe no ka pyrometallurgical 'a me ka hydrometallurgical

2 hana keleawe.Hāʻawi ka papa 6-1 a me 6-2 i nā hōʻuluʻulu capsule o kēia mau hana.

1 PyrometaIIurgy ka unuhi ana o ka metaI mai loko mai o ka ores a me ka concentrate me ka hoohana ana i na hana kemika ma na wela kiekie.

2 ʻO ka Hydrometallurgy ka hoʻihoʻi ʻana i nā metaIs mai nā ores me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hoʻonā wai.

I ka makahiki 6000 BC, ua ʻike ʻia ke keleawe maoli—ʻo ka metala maʻemaʻe—he mau pōhaku ʻulaʻula ma ka ʻāina ʻo Med iterranean a ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia i nā ipu, nā mea kaua, a me nā mea hana.Ma kahi o 5000 BC, ua ʻike ka poʻe akamai i ka wela i hoʻonui ai i ka malle.Hoʻomaka ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana a me ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ke keleawe ma kahi o 4000-3500 BC (e nānā i ke kiʻi 6-2).Ma kahi o 2500 BC, ua hui pū ʻia ke keleawe me ka piʻi e hana i ke keleawe—he huila e hiki ai i nā mea kaua ikaika a me nā mea hana.ʻAʻole i kūkulu ʻia ke keleawe a hiki i ka makahiki 300 AD

Ua ʻeli mua ʻia ke keleawe (he kūʻē i ka loaʻa ʻana ma ka ʻāina) ma ke awāwa ʻo Timna ma ʻIseraʻela—he wahi neoneo i manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ke kahua o nā Mines a King Solomon (e nānā i ke kiʻi 6-3).ʻO ka poʻe Phoenicians a me Remans, ka poʻe i hana i nā mines nui ma Kupero a ma ka ʻāina ʻo Rio Tinto ma ka hema o Sepania, ua holomua mua i ka ʻimi keleawe a me nā hana eli.No ka laʻana, ua loaʻa i ka poʻe Ro man ma kahi o 100 mau kino ʻano lens ma ka ʻāpana keleawe o Rio Tinto.Ua loaʻa i ka poʻe kālaihonua o kēia wā he mau waihona ʻē aʻe wale nō, a ʻaneʻane ʻo nā mea hana hou a Rio Tinto i hana ʻia mai loko mai o ka ʻele i ʻike mua ʻia e nā Remans.

3 Ma Rio Tinto, ua ʻeli ʻo Remans i ka ʻāpana o ka ʻiʻa o luna, bipi idized, a hōʻiliʻili i ke keleawe Iaden solution i hana ʻia e ka wai e kahe mālie ana i loko o nā kino o ka suIfide.I ka wā i lanakila ai ka poʻe Moors i kēia ʻāpana o Sepania i ka wā o ka Middle Ages, ua hoʻopau loa ʻia nā ʻaila ʻokikene. ma Rio Tinto a hiki i ke kenekulia 20.

Ma Beretania, ua hana 'ia ke keleawe a me ke tini ma ka paia Corn a kuai aku me ko Phoenicians i ka makahiki 1500 BC Ua lawe mai ka Remans i na mea hana hoohehee metala maikai i Beretania.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: Iune-21-2023